In which of the following situations might nitrous oxide (Entonox) be considered?

  • A wound dressing change for short term pain relief or the removal of a chest drain for reduction of anxiety.

  • Turning a patient who has bowel obstruction because there is an expectation that they may have pain from pathological fractures

  • For pain relief during the insertion of a chest drain for the treatment of a pneumothorax.

  • For pain relief during a wound dressing for a patient who has had radical head and neck cancer that involved the jaw.